Litecoin cpu vs gpu 2018-05

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XPM is a peer-to-peer open source cryptocurrency that implements a unique scientific computing proof-of-work system. Primecoin has been described [ by whom? When comparing Primecoin primecoin gpu vs cpu rendering today's most widely spread cryptocurrency called bitcoin some notable differences primecoin gpu vs cpu rendering. Primecoin uses the finding of prime chains composed of Cunningham chains and bi-twin chains for proof-of-work, which can lead to useful byproducts.

The system is designed so that the work is efficiently verifiable by all nodes on the Primecoin network. Other cryptocurrencies including bitcoin commonly use a Hashcash type of proof-of-work based on SHA hash calculations, which are of no value beyond its own economy. List of largest known Cunningham chains of given length [13] includes several results generated by Primecoin miners. Currency symbol — A currency symbol is a graphic symbol used as a shorthand for a currencys name, especially in reference to amounts of money.

Many currencies in the English-speaking world and Latin America, place it before the amount, the Cape Verdean escudo places its symbol in the decimal separator position.

The usage of many European countries, such as France, Germany, the decimal separator also follows local countries standards. For instance, the United Kingdom often uses an interpunct as the point on primecoin gpu vs cpu rendering stickers.

Commas or decimal points are common primecoin gpu vs cpu rendering used in other countries, see decimal separator for information on international standards. Older currency symbols have primecoin gpu vs cpu rendering slowly, often from previous currencies, the dollar and peso symbols originated from the mark employed to denote the Spanish real de a ocho, whereas the pound and lira symbols evolved from an L standing for libra, a Roman pound of silver.

Newly invented currencies and currencies adopting new symbols have symbolism closer to their adopter, the added center bar in the real sign is meant to symbolize stability. There are also considerations, such as the perception of the business community. For a new symbol to be used, software to render it needs to be promulgated, the EU was criticized for not considering how the euro symbol would need to be customized to work in different fonts.

The original design was exceptionally wide. These two factors have led to most typefaces employing customized, font-specific versions, usually with reduced width, List of currencies List of circulating currencies Currency Symbols. Central bank — A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a states currency, money supply, and interest rates. Central banks also usually oversee the commercial banking system of their respective countries, Central banks in most developed nations are institutionally designed to be independent from political interference.

Still, limited control by the executive and legislative bodies usually exists, prior to the 17th century most money was commodity money, typically gold or silver. Primecoin gpu vs cpu rendering, promises to pay were widely circulated and accepted as value at least five hundred years earlier in both Europe and Asia. The Song dynasty was the first to issue generally circulating paper currency, inin an effort to control inflation, the succeeding Ming Dynasty ended the use of paper money and closed much of Chinese trade.

The Bank of Amsterdam, established in the Dutch Republic inis considered to be the forerunner to modern central banks. The Wisselbanks innovations helped lay the foundations for the birth and development of the banking system that now plays a vital role in the worlds economy.

Along with a number of local banks, it performed many primecoin gpu vs cpu rendering of a central banking system. Lucien Gillard calls it the European guilder, and Adam Smith devotes many pages to explaining how the bank guilder works, the model of the Wisselbank as a state bank was adapted throughout Europe, including the Bank of Sweden and the Bank of England.

Established by Primecoin gpu vs cpu rendering Johan Palmstruch inSveriges Riksbank is often considered by many as the worlds oldest central bank, the lenders would give the primecoin gpu vs cpu rendering cash and also issue notes against the government bonds, which could be lent again. A Royal Charter was granted on 27 July through the passage of the Tonnage Actthe bank was given exclusive possession of the governments balances, and was the only limited-liability corporation allowed to issue banknotes.

The currency crisis ofcaused by panicked depositors withdrawing from the Bank led to the government suspending convertibility of notes into specie payment. The bank was accused by the bullionists of causing the exchange rate to fall from over issuing banknotes. Nevertheless, it was clear that the Bank was being treated as an organ of the state, henry Thornton, a merchant banker and monetary theorist has been described as the father of the modern central bank.

An opponent of the real bills doctrine, he was a defender of the bullionist position, thorntons process of monetary expansion anticipated the theories of Knut Wicksell regarding the cumulative process which restates the Quantity Theory in a theoretically coherent form. Until the mid-nineteenth century, commercial banks were able to issue their own banknotes, many consider the origins of the central bank to lie with the passage of the Bank Charter Act of Peer-to-peer — Peer-to-peer computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers.

Peers are equally privileged, equipotent participants in the application and they are said to form a peer-to-peer network of nodes. Peers are both suppliers and consumers of resources, in contrast to the traditional client-server model in which the consumption, while P2P systems had previously been used in many application domains, the architecture was popularized by the primecoin gpu vs cpu rendering sharing system Napster, originally released in The concept has inspired new structures and philosophies in many areas of human interaction, in such social contexts, peer-to-peer as a meme refers primecoin gpu vs cpu rendering the egalitarian social networking that has emerged throughout society, enabled by Internet technologies in general.

While P2P systems had previously used in many application domains. The peer-to-peer movement allowed millions of Internet users to directly, forming groups and collaborating to become user-created search engines, virtual supercomputers.

The basic concept of peer-to-peer computing was envisioned in earlier systems and networking discussions, reaching back to principles stated in the first Request for Comments. The early Internet was more open primecoin gpu vs cpu rendering present day, where two machines connected to the Internet could send packets to each other without firewalls and other security measures and this contrasts to the broadcasting-like structure of the web as it has developed over the years. As a precursor to the Internet, ARPANET was a successful client-server network where every participating node could request, however, ARPANET was not self-organized, and it lacked the ability to provide any means for context or content-based routing beyond simple address-based routing.

Therefore, a messaging system that is often likened as an early peer-to-peer architecture was established. USENET was developed in and is a system that enforces a decentralized model of control, the basic model is a client-server model from primecoin gpu vs cpu rendering user or client perspective that offers a self-organizing approach to newsgroup servers. However, news servers communicate with one another as peers to propagate Usenet news articles over the group of network servers.

In Maywith more people on the Internet, Shawn Fanning introduced the music. A peer-to-peer network is designed around the notion of equal peer nodes simultaneously functioning as both clients and servers to the nodes on the network. This model of network arrangement differs from the model where communication is usually to.

Overlays are used for indexing and peer discovery, and make the P2P system independent from the network topology. Based on how the nodes are linked to each other within the overlay network, unstructured peer-to-peer networks do not impose a particular structure on the overlay network by design, but rather are formed primecoin gpu vs cpu rendering nodes that randomly form connections to each other. Communications protocol — These are the rules or standard that defines the syntax, semantics and synchronization of communication and possible error recovery methods.

Protocols may be implemented by hardware, software, or a combination of both, Communicating systems use well-defined formats for exchanging various messages. Each message has a meaning intended to elicit a response from a range of possible responses pre-determined for that particular situation. The specified behavior is independent of how it is to be implemented. Communications protocols have to be agreed upon by the parties involved, to reach agreement, a protocol may be developed into a technical standard.

Multiple protocols often describe different aspects of a single communication, a group of protocols designed to work together are known as a protocol suite, when implemented in software they are a protocol stack.

As the PSTN and Internet converge, the two sets of standards are also being driven towards convergence, the nature of a communication, the actual data exchanged and any state-dependent behaviors, is defined by these specifications. In digital computing systems, the rules can be expressed by algorithms, expressing the algorithms in a portable programming language makes the protocol software operating-system independent. Operating systems usually contain a set of cooperating processes that manipulate shared data to communicate each other.

This communication is governed by protocols, which can be embedded in the process code itself. In contrast, because there is no memory, communicating systems have to communicate with each other using a shared transmission medium. Transmission is not necessarily reliable, and individual systems may use different hardware or operating systems, to implement a networking protocol, the protocol software primecoin gpu vs cpu rendering are interfaced with a framework implemented on the machines operating system.

This framework implements the functionality of the operating system. Systems typically do not use a protocol to handle a transmission. Instead they use a set of cooperating protocols, sometimes called a family or protocol suite. Open-source model — Open-source software may be developed in a collaborative public manner.

In the early days of computing, programmers and developers shared software in order to learn from each other, eventually the open source notion moved to the way side of commercialization of software in the years Netscapes act prompted Raymond and others to look into how to bring the Free Software Foundations free software ideas, the new term they chose was open source, which was soon adopted by Bruce Perens, publisher Tim OReilly, Linus Torvalds, and others.

The Open Source Initiative was founded in February to encourage use of the new term, a Microsoft executive publicly stated in that open source is an intellectual property destroyer.

I cant imagine something that could be primecoin gpu vs cpu rendering than this for the primecoin gpu vs cpu rendering business, IBM, Oracle, Google and State Farm are just a few of the companies with a serious public stake in todays competitive open-source market. There has been a significant shift in the corporate philosophy concerning the development of FOSS, the free software movement was launched in Ina group of individuals advocated that the free software should be replaced by open-source software as an expression which is less ambiguous.

Software developers may want to publish their software with an open-source license, the Open Source Definition, notably, presents an open-source philosophy, and further defines the terms of usage, modification and redistribution of open-source software.

Software licenses grant rights to users which would otherwise be reserved by law to the copyright holder. Several open-source software licenses have qualified within the boundaries of the Open Source Definition, the open source label came out of a strategy session held on April 7, in Palo Alto in reaction to Netscapes January announcement of a source code release for Navigator.

They used the opportunity before the release of Navigators source code to clarify a potential confusion caused by the ambiguity of the free in English. Many people claimed that the birth of the Internet, sincestarted the open source movement, the Free Software Foundation, started inintended the word free to mean freedom to distribute and not freedom from cost.

Since a great deal of free software already was free of charge, such software became associated with zero cost. The Open Source Initiative was formed in February by Eric Raymond and they sought to bring a higher profile to the practical benefits of freely available source code, and they wanted to bring major software businesses and other high-tech industries into open source. Perens attempted to open source as a service mark for the OSI. The Open Source Initiatives definition is recognized by governments internationally as the standard or de facto definition, OSI uses The Open Source Definition to determine whether it considers a primecoin gpu vs cpu rendering license open source.

Proof-of-work system — The concept may have been first presented by Cynthia Dwork and Moni Naor in a journal article. The term Proof of Work or POW was first coined and formalized in a paper by Markus Jakobsson, a key feature of these schemes is their asymmetry, the work must be moderately hard on the requester side but easy to check for the service provider.

This idea is known primecoin gpu vs cpu rendering a CPU cost function, client puzzle. Proof of primecoin gpu vs cpu rendering approaches have been discussed in the context of cryptocurrency, Proof of ownership aims at proving that specific data are held by the prover.

One popular system—used in bitcoin mining and Hashcash— uses partial hash inversions to prove that work was primecoin gpu vs cpu rendering, as a good-will token to send an e-mail. For instance the following header represents about hash computations to send a message to primecoin gpu vs cpu rendering comics. Proof-of-work systems are being used as a primitive by other more complex systems such as bitcoin which uses a system similar to Hashcash.

There are two classes of proof-of-work protocols, primecoin gpu vs cpu rendering protocols assume a direct interactive link between the requester and the provider. The provider chooses a challenge, say an item in a set with a property, the requester finds the relevant response in the set, as the challenge is chosen on the spot by the provider, its difficulty can be adapted to its current load.

The work on the side may be bounded if the primecoin gpu vs cpu rendering protocol has a known solution. Most such schemes are unbounded probabilistic iterative procedures such as Hashcash, a generic technique for reducing variance is to use multiple independent sub-challenges, as the average of multiple samples will have lower variance.

There are also fixed-cost functions such as the time-lock puzzle, memory-bound where the computation speed is bound by main memory accesses, the performance of which is expected to be less sensitive to hardware evolution.

Network-bound if the client must perform few computations, but must collect some tokens from remote servers before querying the final service provider, primecoin gpu vs cpu rendering this sense the work is not actually performed by the requester, but it incurs delays anyway because of the latency to get the required tokens. Finally, some POW systems offer shortcut computations that allow participants who know a secret, typically a private key, the rationale is that mailing-list holders may generate stamps for every recipient without incurring a high cost.

Whether such a feature is desirable depends on the usage scenario, the idea of making proofs-of-work reusable for some practical purpose had already been established in Prime number — A prime number is a natural number greater than 1 that has no positive divisors other than 1 and itself. A natural number greater than 1 that is not a number is called a composite number.

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Bitcoin was invented by an unknown person or group of people under the name Satoshi Nakamoto [11] and released as open-source software in Bitcoins are created as a reward for a process known as mining. They can be exchanged for other currencies, [13] products, and services. As of February , over , merchants and vendors accepted bitcoin as payment. The word bitcoin first occurred and was defined in the white paper [5] that was published on 31 October There is no uniform convention for bitcoin capitalization.

Some sources use Bitcoin , capitalized, to refer to the technology and network and bitcoin , lowercase, to refer to the unit of account. The unit of account of the bitcoin system is a bitcoin.

Named in homage to bitcoin's creator, a satoshi is the smallest amount within bitcoin representing 0. As with most new symbols, font support is very limited. Typefaces supporting it include Horta. On 18 August , the domain name "bitcoin. In January , the bitcoin network came into existence after Satoshi Nakamoto mined the first ever block on the chain, known as the genesis block.

This note has been interpreted as both a timestamp of the genesis date and a derisive comment on the instability caused by fractional-reserve banking. The receiver of the first bitcoin transaction was cypherpunk Hal Finney , who created the first reusable proof-of-work system RPOW in In the early days, Nakamoto is estimated to have mined 1 million bitcoins.

So, if I get hit by a bus, it would be clear that the project would go on. Over the history of Bitcoin there have been several spins offs and deliberate hard forks that have lived on as separate blockchains.

These have come to be known as "altcoins", short for alternative coins, since Bitcoin was the first blockchain and these are derivative of it. These spin offs occur so that new ideas can be tested, when the scope of that idea is outside that of Bitcoin, or when the community is split about merging such changes. Since then there have been numerous forks of Bitcoin. See list of bitcoin forks. The blockchain is a public ledger that records bitcoin transactions.

A novel solution accomplishes this without any trusted central authority: The blockchain is a distributed database — to achieve independent verification of the chain of ownership of any and every bitcoin amount, each network node stores its own copy of the blockchain.

This allows bitcoin software to determine when a particular bitcoin amount has been spent, which is necessary in order to prevent double-spending in an environment without central oversight. Whereas a conventional ledger records the transfers of actual bills or promissory notes that exist apart from it, the blockchain is the only place that bitcoins can be said to exist in the form of unspent outputs of transactions. Transactions are defined using a Forth -like scripting language.

When a user sends bitcoins, the user designates each address and the amount of bitcoin being sent to that address in an output. To prevent double spending, each input must refer to a previous unspent output in the blockchain. Since transactions can have multiple outputs, users can send bitcoins to multiple recipients in one transaction.

As in a cash transaction, the sum of inputs coins used to pay can exceed the intended sum of payments. In such a case, an additional output is used, returning the change back to the payer.

Paying a transaction fee is optional. Because the size of mined blocks is capped by the network, miners choose transactions based on the fee paid relative to their storage size, not the absolute amount of money paid as a fee. The size of transactions is dependent on the number of inputs used to create the transaction, and the number of outputs.

In the blockchain, bitcoins are registered to bitcoin addresses. Creating a bitcoin address is nothing more than picking a random valid private key and computing the corresponding bitcoin address.

This computation can be done in a split second. But the reverse computing the private key of a given bitcoin address is mathematically unfeasible and so users can tell others and make public a bitcoin address without compromising its corresponding private key.

Moreover, the number of valid private keys is so vast that it is extremely unlikely someone will compute a key-pair that is already in use and has funds. The vast number of valid private keys makes it unfeasible that brute force could be used for that.

To be able to spend the bitcoins, the owner must know the corresponding private key and digitally sign the transaction. The network verifies the signature using the public key.

If the private key is lost, the bitcoin network will not recognize any other evidence of ownership; [9] the coins are then unusable, and effectively lost. Mining is a record-keeping service done through the use of computer processing power. To be accepted by the rest of the network, a new block must contain a so-called proof-of-work PoW.

Every 2, blocks approximately 14 days at roughly 10 min per block , the difficulty target is adjusted based on the network's recent performance, with the aim of keeping the average time between new blocks at ten minutes. In this way the system automatically adapts to the total amount of mining power on the network. The proof-of-work system, alongside the chaining of blocks, makes modifications of the blockchain extremely hard, as an attacker must modify all subsequent blocks in order for the modifications of one block to be accepted.

Computing power is often bundled together or "pooled" to reduce variance in miner income. Individual mining rigs often have to wait for long periods to confirm a block of transactions and receive payment.

In a pool, all participating miners get paid every time a participating server solves a block. This payment depends on the amount of work an individual miner contributed to help find that block. The successful miner finding the new block is rewarded with newly created bitcoins and transaction fees. To claim the reward, a special transaction called a coinbase is included with the processed payments.

The bitcoin protocol specifies that the reward for adding a block will be halved every , blocks approximately every four years. Eventually, the reward will decrease to zero, and the limit of 21 million bitcoins [f] will be reached c. Their numbers are being released roughly every ten minutes and the rate at which they are generated would drop by half every four years until all were in circulation.

A wallet stores the information necessary to transact bitcoins. While wallets are often described as a place to hold [60] or store bitcoins, [61] due to the nature of the system, bitcoins are inseparable from the blockchain transaction ledger. A better way to describe a wallet is something that "stores the digital credentials for your bitcoin holdings" [61] and allows one to access and spend them.

Bitcoin uses public-key cryptography , in which two cryptographic keys, one public and one private, are generated. There are three modes which wallets can operate in. They have an inverse relationship with regards to trustlessness and computational requirements. Third-party internet services called online wallets offer similar functionality but may be easier to use.

In this case, credentials to access funds are stored with the online wallet provider rather than on the user's hardware. A malicious provider or a breach in server security may cause entrusted bitcoins to be stolen. An example of such a security breach occurred with Mt. Physical wallets store offline the credentials necessary to spend bitcoins. Another type of wallet called a hardware wallet keeps credentials offline while facilitating transactions.

The first wallet program — simply named "Bitcoin" — was released in by Satoshi Nakamoto as open-source code. While a decentralized system cannot have an "official" implementation, Bitcoin Core is considered by some to be bitcoin's preferred implementation. Bitcoin was designed not to need a central authority [5] and the bitcoin network is considered to be decentralized. In mining pool Ghash. The pool has voluntarily capped their hashing power at Bitcoin is pseudonymous , meaning that funds are not tied to real-world entities but rather bitcoin addresses.

Owners of bitcoin addresses are not explicitly identified, but all transactions on the blockchain are public. In addition, transactions can be linked to individuals and companies through "idioms of use" e. To heighten financial privacy, a new bitcoin address can be generated for each transaction. Wallets and similar software technically handle all bitcoins as equivalent, establishing the basic level of fungibility.

Researchers have pointed out that the history of each bitcoin is registered and publicly available in the blockchain ledger, and that some users may refuse to accept bitcoins coming from controversial transactions, which would harm bitcoin's fungibility.

The blocks in the blockchain were originally limited to 32 megabyte in size. The block size limit of one megabyte was introduced by Satoshi Nakamoto in , as an anti-spam measure. On 24 August at block , , Segregated Witness SegWit went live, introducing a new transaction format where signature data is separated and known as the witness.

The upgrade replaced the block size limit with a limit on a new measure called block weight , which counts non-witness data four times as much as witness data, and allows a maximum weight of 4 million. Bitcoin is a digital asset designed by its inventor, Satoshi Nakamoto, to work as a currency. The question whether bitcoin is a currency or not is still disputed.

According to research produced by Cambridge University , there were between 2. The number of users has grown significantly since , when there were , to 1.

In , the number of merchants accepting bitcoin exceeded , Reasons for this fall include high transaction fees due to bitcoin's scalability issues, long transaction times and a rise in value making consumers unwilling to spend it. Merchants accepting bitcoin ordinarily use the services of bitcoin payment service providers such as BitPay or Coinbase.

When a customer pays in bitcoin, the payment service provider accepts the bitcoin on behalf of the merchant, converts it to the local currency, and sends the obtained amount to merchant's bank account, charging a fee for the service. Bitcoins can be bought on digital currency exchanges.

According to Tony Gallippi , a co-founder of BitPay , "banks are scared to deal with bitcoin companies, even if they really want to". In a report, Bank of America Merrill Lynch stated that "we believe bitcoin can become a major means of payment for e-commerce and may emerge as a serious competitor to traditional money-transfer providers. Plans were announced to include a bitcoin futures option on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange in Some Argentinians have bought bitcoins to protect their savings against high inflation or the possibility that governments could confiscate savings accounts.