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Maroons were Africans who had escaped from slavery in the Americas and mixed with the indigenous peoples of the Americasand formed independent settlements.
The term can also be applied to their descendants. In the New Worldas early aslitecoin wallet out of sync 1995 Africans escaped from Spanish captors and either joined indigenous peoples or eked out a living on their own. When runaway Blacks and Amerindians banded together and subsisted independently they were called Maroons.
On the Caribbean islandsthey formed bands and on some islands, armed camps. Maroon communities faced great odds to survive from colonists, obtain food for subsistence living, and to reproduce and increase their numbers. As the planters took over more land litecoin wallet out of sync 1995 crops, the Maroons began to lose ground on the small islands.
Litecoin wallet out of sync 1995 on some of the larger islands were organized Maroon communities able to thrive by growing crops and hunting. Here they grew in number as more Blacks escaped from plantations and joined their bands.
Seeking to separate themselves from Whites, the Maroons gained in power and amid increasing hostilities, they raided and pillaged plantations and harassed planters until the planters began to fear a massive revolt of the enslaved Blacks. The early Maroon communities were usually displaced. ByMaroons had disappeared from the smaller islands.
Survival was always difficult as the Maroons had to fight off attackers as well as attempt to grow food. Escaped Blacks sought refuge away from the coastal plantations of Ponce. Maroon communities emerged in many places litecoin wallet out of sync 1995 the Caribbean St.
Vincent and Dominicafor examplebut none were seen as such a great litecoin wallet out of sync 1995 to the British as the Jamaican Maroons. In exchange they were to agree to capture other escaped Blacks. They were paid a bounty of two dollars for each African returned.
Beginning in the late 17th century, Jamaican Maroons fought British colonists to a draw and eventually signed treaties in the 18th century that effectively freed them over 50 years before the abolition of the slave trade in To this day, the Jamaican Maroons are to a significant extent autonomous and separate from Jamaican society. The physical isolation used to their advantage by their ancestors has today led to their communities remaining among the most inaccessible on the island.
In their largest town, Accompongin the parish of St. Elizabeththe Leeward Maroons still possess a vibrant community of about Tours of the village are offered to foreigners and a large festival is put on every January 6 to commemorate the signing of the peace treaty with the British after the First Maroon War.
In the plantation colony of Surinamewhich the Dutch received from the English after signing the Treaty of Bredaescaped Blacks revolted and started to build their own villages from the end of the 17th century. As most of the plantations existed in the eastern part of the country, near the Commewijne River and Marowijne River litecoin wallet out of sync 1995, the Marronage i. By the Maroons had formed clans and felt strong enough to challenge the Dutch colonists, forcing them to sign peace treaties.
The treaty is still important, as it defines the territorial rights of the Maroons in the gold -rich inlands of Suriname. Slaves escaped frequently within the first generation of their arrival from Africa and often preserved their African languages and much of their culture and religion.
African traditions include such things as the use of medicinal herbs together with special drums and dances when the herbs are administered to a sick person. Other African healing traditions and rites have survived through the centuries. The jungles around the Caribbean Sea offered food, shelter, and isolation for the escaped slaves. Maroons sustained themselves by growing vegetables and hunting.
Their survival depended upon military abilities and culture of these communities, using guerrilla tactics and heavily fortified dwellings involving traps and diversions.
Some defined leaving the community as desertion and therefore punishable by death. During these attacks, the maroons would burn crops, steal livestock and tools, kill slavemasters, and invite other slaves to litecoin wallet out of sync 1995 their communities.
Individual groups of Maroons often allied themselves with the local indigenous tribes and occasionally assimilated into these populations. There is much variety among Maroon cultural groups because of differences in history, geography, African nationality, and the culture of indigenous people throughout the Western hemisphere. Maroon settlements often possessed a clannish, outsider identity. They sometimes developed Creole languages by mixing European tongues with their original African languages.
One such Maroon Creole language, in Suriname, is Saramaccan. At other times, the Maroons would adopt variations of local European language Creolization as a common tongue, for members of the community frequently spoke a variety of mother tongues. The Maroons created their own independent communities which in some cases have survived for centuries and until recently remained separate from mainstream society.
In the 19th and 20th centuries, Maroon communities began to disappear as forests were razed, although some countries, such as Guyana and Suriname, still have large Maroon populations living in the forests. Recently, many of them moved to cities and towns as the process of urbanization accelerates.
A typical maroon community in the early stage usually consists of three types of people. Most of them were slaves who ran away right after they got off the ships. They refused to accept enslavement and often tried to find ways to go back to Africa. The second group were unskilled slaves who had been working on plantations for a while.
Those slaves were usually somewhat adjusted to the slave system but had been abused by the plantation owners, with brutality excessive even when compared to the normal standards. Others ran away when they were being sold suddenly to a new owner. The last group of maroons were usually skilled slaves with particularly strong ideals against the slave system.
Maroonage was a constant threat to New World plantation societies. Maroon communities had to be inaccessible and located in inhospitable environments in order to be sustainable.
Maroon communities turned the severity of their environments to their advantage to hide and defend their communities. Maroon men utilized exemplary guerrilla warfare skills to fight their European enemies. Nanny, the famous Jamaican Maroon, developed guerrilla warfare tactics that are still used today by many militaries around the world.
Even though colonial governments were in a perpetual state of hatred toward the maroon communities, individuals in the colonial system traded goods and services with maroons.
Absolute secrecy and litecoin wallet out of sync 1995 of members was crucial to the survival of maroon communities. Maroon communities were formed among the Afro-Asians in South Asia who resisted slavery. Similar Maroon communities developed on islands across the Caribbean, such as the Garifuna.
Many of the Garifuna were deported to the mainland, where some eventually settling along the Mosquito Coast or in Belize. See History of the Dominican Republic. Litecoin wallet out of sync 1995 French encountered many forms of slave resistance during the 17th and 18th centuries.
The African slaves who fled to remote mountainous areas were called marron French or mawon Haitian Creolemeaning "escaped slave". The maroons formed close-knit communities that practised small-scale agriculture and hunting. They were known to return to plantations to free family members and friends. Certain maroon factions became so formidable that they made treaties with local colonial authorities, sometimes negotiating their own independence in exchange for helping to hunt down litecoin wallet out of sync 1995 escaped slaves.
Other slave resistance efforts against the French plantation system were more direct. The maroon leader Mackandal led a movement litecoin wallet out of sync 1995 poison the drinking water of the plantation owners in the s. Boukman declared war on the French plantation owners insparking off the Haitian Revolution. Additional slaves gained freedom during the confusion surrounding the British invasion.
Refugee slaves continued to join them through the decades until the abolition of slavery in During the late 17th and 18th centuries, the British tried to capture them because they occasionally raided plantationsand made expansion into the interior more difficult. An increase in armed confrontations over decades led to the First Maroon War inbut the British were unable to defeat the Maroons. They finally settled with the groups by treaty in andallowing them to have autonomy in their communities in exchange for agreeing to be called to military service with the colonists if needed.
Due to litecoin wallet out of sync 1995 and repeated conflicts with Maroons, the Second Maroon War erupted in In an effort to break up the Maroon communities, the colonial government deported approximately captive maroons to Nova Scotia.
It offered ethnic Africans a chance to set up their own community there, beginning in Around a number of Jamaican Maroons were transported to Freetownthe first settlement of Sierra Leone. The only Leeward Maroon settlement that retained formal autonomy on Jamaica after the Second Maroon War was Accompongin Saint Elizabeth Parishwhose people had abided by their treaty with the British.
Litecoin wallet out of sync 1995 government has tried to encourage survival of the other Maroon settlements. Sincethe Jamaican government and Maroon communities have held the Annual International Maroon Conference at rotating communities around the island. Maroons from other Caribbean, Central and South America nations are invited. DNA analysis of contemporary persons from this area shows maternal ancestry from the MandinkaWolofand Fulani peoples through the mtDNA African haplotype associated with them, L1bwhich is present here.
Several different maroon societies developed around the Gulf of Honduras. Some were found in the interior of modern-day Hondurasalong the trade routes by which silver mined in the Litecoin wallet out of sync 1995 side of the isthmus was carried by slaves down to coastal towns such as Trujillo or Puerto Caballos to be shipped to Europe.
When slaves escaped, they went to the mountains for safety. In the English bishop of Guatemala, Thomas Gage, reported active bands of maroons numbering in the hundreds along these routes. The Miskito Sambu were a maroon group who formed from slaves who revolted on a Portuguese ship aroundwrecking the vessel on the coast of Honduras-Nicaragua and escaping into the interior.
They intermarried with the indigenous people over the next half-century. They eventually rose to leadership of the Mosquito Coastand led extensive slave raids against Spanish-held territories in the first half of the 18th century. The Garifuna are descendants of maroon communities that developed on the island of Saint Vincent. They were deported to the coast of Honduras in From their original landing place in Roatan Islandthe maroons moved to Trujillo.
Gradually groups migrated south into the Mosquito Kingdom and north into Belize. Bayanoa Mandinka man who had been enslaved and taken to Panama inled a rebellion that year against the Spanish in Panama.
He and his followers escaped to found villages in the lowlands. From tomaroonswho had been deported from Jamaica after the Second Maroon War, lived in Nova Scotia.